Have you ever crammed for a test until the wee hours of the morning to try and pass? Did it help? Perhaps it did. You may have remembered enough to pass the test and maybe even get an excellent grade.
However, cramming likely did not help you retain that information far beyond taking the test. That’s because our brains are not wired to recall new information over long periods of time.
The Forgetting Curve
The forgetting curve is a concept in experimental psychology that describes the rate at which we tend to forget newly learned information over time. The curve was first proposed by psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus in the late 1800s, and it has since been used to understand how the human brain processes and retains information.
According to the forgetting curve, we tend to forget most of what we learn within the first 24 hours after learning it. This rate of forgetting then slows down over time, but it never completely stops. The curve suggests that we need to actively review learning material and reinforce what we have learned in order to retain it in long-term memory.
Spaced repetition is one technique that can be used to counter the effects of the forgetting curve and help us retain new information more effectively. By reviewing study material at increasingly spaced intervals, we can reinforce our memory of it and reduce the rate at which we forget it.
The forgetting curve is a reminder of the importance of consistent review and reinforcement in the learning process. By understanding and utilizing the spacing effect, we can improve our ability to retain and recall new information over time.
What is Spaced Repetition and How Does it Work?
Spaced repetition is a learning technique that involves reviewing and reinforcing previously learned material at graduated intervals of time. The idea behind this technique is that by reviewing material at increasing intervals, you can more effectively commit the information to long-term memory and reduce the need for frequent review.
There are several ways to implement a spaced repetition system in language learning, such as using flashcards or language learning apps such as Duolingo, that utilize the spaced repetition technique.
With flashcards, you can review a set of cards with vocabulary or grammar points on one side and their translations on the other side. As you progress through the set, you can review cards that you struggle with more frequently and those that you have mastered less frequently, creating a spaced repetition schedule.
Language learning apps that utilize spaced repetition software typically use algorithms to determine the best review interval for each piece of material based on your performance.
These apps often incorporate interactive exercises and games along with the spaced repetition algorithm to make the review process more engaging and knowledge retention more effective.
Spaced learning can be a powerful tool for language learning as it helps to ensure that you are consistently reinforcing what you have learned and making the most efficient use of your study time.
The Importance of Active Recall
Active recall refers to the process of actively recalling and reproducing information that you have learned, while passive learning refers to the process of simply receiving and absorbing information without actively recalling it. Active recall is generally considered to be more effective for learning and retaining new information than passive learning, for a few reasons:
- Active recall requires more cognitive effort: When you actively recall information, you are required to engage with the material more deeply, which can lead to a stronger and more lasting memory of the information.
- Active recall helps to identify gaps in your knowledge: Retrieval practice will highlight knowledge disparity, clarifying where you need to focus.
- For many people, actively recalling information can be more engaging and enjoyable than simply passively receiving it. This can make the entire learning process more enjoyable and can help to increase motivation to learn.
Overall, while both active recall and passive learning have their place in the learning process, research suggests that actively recalling information with spaced practice can be a more effective and engaging way to learn and retain new material.
Tips for Incorporating Spaced Repetition Into Your Language Learning
Incorporating repetition scheduling into your language learning routine can be an effective way to accelerate your progress and more efficiently use your study time. Here are some tips for incorporating spaced repetition learning into your routine:
- Use flashcards (I use Anki) or language learning apps that utilize spaced repetition: As mentioned earlier, flashcards and language learning apps can be effective tools for implementing repetition work into your language learning routine. These resources can help you create a structured review schedule and track your progress as you go.
- Set aside dedicated study time: To get the most out of spaced rehearsal, it's important to set aside dedicated study time on a regular basis. This could be a few short sessions spread throughout the week or one longer session each day.
- Start small and gradually increase the amount of learning material you review: To avoid feeling overwhelmed, it's a good idea to start small and gradually increase the amount of material you review as you become more comfortable with the spacing interval technique.
- Vary your review materials and activities: To keep things interesting and engaging, try to mix up your review materials and activities. This could include using different types of flashcards, switching between different language learning apps, or incorporating other language learning techniques, such as immersion or language exchange.
- Track your progress and adjust your review schedule as needed: It's important to track your progress and make adjustments to your review schedule as needed. If you find that you are consistently getting certain material correct, you can adjust your review intervals to reflect this. On the other hand, if you are struggling with certain study material, you may want to review it more frequently until you feel more comfortable with it.
The key to successfully incorporating spaced repetition into your language learning routine is to be consistent, track your progress, and make adjustments as needed. By following these tips, you can effectively accelerate your language learning journey with spaced repetition.
How to Combine Spaced Repetition with Other Language Learning Techniques
Combining spaced repetition with other language learning techniques can be a powerful way to accelerate your progress and become more proficient in your target language.
Here are some tips for combining spaced repetition with other language-learning techniques:
- Use spaced repetition to reinforce vocabulary and grammar points: Spaced repetition can be an effective way to reinforce the vocabulary words or grammar points that you learn through other techniques, such as immersion or language exchange. By reviewing these points regularly with an increasing time interval, you can more effectively commit them to long-term memory and reduce the need for frequent review.
- Incorporate authentic language materials into your review sessions: To make your review sessions more engaging and authentic, try to incorporate authentic language materials, such as YouTube videos, podcasts, or news articles, into your study session. This can help you practice your listening and reading skills in a more natural and authentic context.
- Use spaced repetition to practice pronunciation and listening comprehension: Repetition spacing can also be a useful tool for practicing pronunciation and listening comprehension. By reviewing audio recordings of a particular vocabulary word or phrase at increasing intervals, you can improve your ability to understand spoken language and mimic native-like pronunciation.
- Combine spaced repetition with language exchange or tutoring: Language exchange, in which you practice speaking with native speakers of your target language, or tutoring with a language tutor can be a valuable complement to your spaced repetition routine. These activities can help you practice your speaking and listening skills in a more interactive and immersive context, while spaced repetition can help you reinforce the language points that you learn through these activities.
By combining spaced repetition with other language learning techniques, you can create a more comprehensive and effective language learning routine that helps you make faster progress towards fluency.
Conclusion: The Spaced Repetition Technique is an Important Part of Language Learning
Spaced practice has been a major part of the list of techniques I've used to learn Spanish. To be able to speak fluently, you must practice speaking. However, I've learned that my knowledge retention is much higher after incorporating this learning technique into my regular routine.
It's important to find ways to use active recall in each study session via a spaced repetition system in order to train your long-term memory. Buena suerte!